D Haine, F Boelaert, DU Pfeiffer, C Saegerman, J-F Lonneux, B Losson, K Mintiens
Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Hypoderma spp. and to develop a spatial model describing the risk surface of warble-fly infection in Belgian cattle herds (adjusting for herd size, herd type, local temperature, rainfall, relative air humidity and land-cover). This survey was carried out in 390 selected herds of all types (dairy, mixed and beef) from December 1997 to March 1998, which were included in a national infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and paratuberculosis (Johne’s-disease) survey. All animals >24 months old were blood sampled and an ELISA was used on pooled serum samples (10 animals per pool). The herd seroprevalence was 48.7% (95% confidence interval: 43.6-53.8); positive herds were mainly in the south of the country and along the North Sea coast. The logistic multiple-regression model of herd-level seropositivity indicated that mixed-type and beef-cattle herds have more than four-fold and two-fold increases in the odds of being Hypoderma-positive, respectively, compared with dairy herds.